Empowered women

  Biography by Mrs. L. (19) – Car Technician

School and Interests

She attended the polytechnic school, where her vocational orientation took place. Mrs. L. felt well supported by the teachers as one of the few girls. In the vocational orientation classes, the earning opportunities were discussed and the differences between typical female and male occupations were pointed out. However, this wasn’t decisive for Mrs. L’s decision.

Asked about her experiences with prejudice, Ms. L. says that in the beginning, schoolmates had had to deal with it at school, but over time acceptance and normality had come about. Mrs. L. believes it is important to concentrate on one’s own goal and thus to motivate oneself.

Career choice

Already in the third grade of the Hauptschule, Ms. L. tends to do a technical training in motor vehicles, whereby her mother, in particular, is not enthusiastic. Thereupon Mrs. L. – according to her own words – looks at “typical girl professions”. Since she attends a polytechnic school, her interests are promoted, she is informed and has the opportunity to get a taste of different areas and companies. This has helped her a lot in her choice of career.

Training process

Finding a training place in the surrounding area was initially not easy for Mrs. L. Since her hometown is in rural areas, there were only two companies that would have been easily accessible for young people. Thereupon, she applied in a more distant company, which took her in. When the other company on site noticed this, it was suddenly possible for Mrs. L. to complete her apprenticeship there: “So to speak: Okay, Porsche takes her, then we will take her, too”, Mrs. L. describes her impression. She was very motivated during her training and her nice colleagues also contributed to it. They supported her both professionally and personally. The good working atmosphere was a very important criterion for Mrs. L., which helped her complete her training. Nevertheless, she was initially confronted with sayings and gossip in her own business. Mrs. L. judged the combination of theoretical knowledge from vocational school and practical knowledge from the company to be very good.

Current employment and satisfaction

Mrs. L. is employed in the same company and is satisfied with her work. She says she gets a lot of recognition and admiration, especially from customers.

  Interviewing K.P. (31) – The automotive industry also thinks about women

You are a car mechanic, mechatronic engineer and diagnostic technician and have recently moved to the BMW Innovation Centre in Munich after a long employment at the Renault car dealership. Did you always know that your career should go in this direction?

Well, I always knew that I wanted to become a craftswoman. Only… nobody believed me. (laughs) Our society has a certain image of young women who might be interested in technical professions. If girls from an early age on prefer to play with boys, like to get dirty and fight, they have a good chance that an interest in technology might be encouraged. Girls like me, who like to wear clothes, do handicrafts with glitter and play with their dolls, on the other hand, are often dissuaded from pursuing such an interest. These images are stuck in people’s minds, which is why many girls don’t allow themselves to even think about maybe working in a technical profession.

Is there anything that distinguishes girls who want to take up a technical profession from those who do not?

Mm… According to studies, the four factors that make women significantly more likely to enter technical professions are firstly, a monoeducational setting (girls-only classes/courses) in school, secondly, a strong interest in structured problem solving, thirdly, a strong male role model and fourthly, the status as an only child or at least the oldest child. However: None of these apply to me. I would conclude that these factors are not related to a technical interest, but rather to the self-confidence to stand by one.

So how did you know that it could be something for you after all?

I wanted to do something creative. But I wanted the product of it not to gather dust on someone’s wall, but to be practical. What has always fascinated me about technology is that there is hardly a more creative and imaginative activity than designing or repairing something. Of course, when explaining different professions to girls, you should not hide the fact that physical work and handling electricity and open flames are part of being a car mechanic, but you can learn all that. What has made me stand out in my career is that I enjoy finding creative solutions to problems, getting involved in new challenges and doing delicate handicrafts.

Did the restrictive images you have described also represent a challenge in your further career?

Definitely! Until recently, I was the only woman working in purely male teams and was always faced with certain fears of contact at the beginning. But that was nothing in comparison to the reactions of some customers, who refused to take even information from me. In addition, our socialisation not only creates barriers in our heads, but also objective ones. For example, I was the only one in my vocational school class who couldn’t weld, who was never explained the different hand tools and who didn’t learn to drive a car on daddy’s lap in early childhood. Something like that is frightening and quickly reactivates the stereotype “girls and technology don’t go together”.

What would be necessary to prevent this?

There are already a number of “women into technology” programmes. However, these should always be accompanied by mentoring, which supports the girls at least during their apprenticeship. There could also be special (voluntary) introductory courses at vocational schools to compensate for different initial conditions. This is already common practice in the academic sector: the Technical University of Vienna, for example, offers women-only introductory courses in computer science. The monoeducational setting means that students feel freer to ask questions.

And over time, the images in people’s minds will change?

Yes, but that will take generations and many positiv role-models. What I would like to show my own daughter is that not only can girls can into technology – but that even the girliest of girls can do so. I want her to know that motor oil and lipstick go well together.



Franziska Mueller (29) – Container Gantry Crane Driver

Franziska is one of four female container gantry drivers among almost 140 men in the Port of Hamburg. For her, the harbour belongs to the family! She literally grew into it. Her grandfather loaded ships and her father and brother did the same. It was clear to her early on that she also wanted to work in the harbour. She either sits upstairs and operates the crane or she stands on deck and instructs the crane operator from there by hand signal and radio. The third position she was trained for is that of the supervisor, who coordinates both.

“Work is carried out in three shifts: At the beginning of the shift you first have a look at the shift plan: Where am I assigned? Then it’s on position. After four hours there is a half-hour break. After the “half” the position is changed, i.e. if she sat the first four hours up in the crane, she stands the next four on deck. Only since 2008 have there also been apprenticeships for women in sea freight transport. Before there was not even a ladies’ toilet!”

For a long time, the harbour was a kind of restricted zone for women. In the beginning she did an office apprenticeship at HHLA and when it was possible to train as a container gantry crane driver, she did not hesitate for long.

There were some critical voices in her environment that would have rather recommended an office job to her. In particular, her grandfather was wondering how she would cope with the rough tone – but today he is very proud that she made it there.

Asked about how one can make male industries more interesting for women she answered: “Less preselection should be made. What counts are qualifications and interest in a sector. In my opinion, the separation into women’s or men’s specific jobs is outdated, but there is a lack of information about which ‘men’s jobs’ are now also available to women, especially at the career choice stage. Counselling services or vocational preparation programmes should therefore be particularly geared to perspectives in men’s sectors”.

Julia S. (21) – Confectioner

Julia completed her apprenticeship programme to become a confectioner in July 2020.  About her decision to become a confectioner, she said:

In my school days I often asked myself: What is the benefit of what I learn here for my life? Soon it was clear: I’m going into crafts, despite my A-levels. With my hands and their work I conjure a smile on people’s faces. I’m a confectioner, and I make delicacies for every palate from various raw materials and ingredients. No matter whether it’s chocolates, caramel, simple cakes or elaborate tarts, decorations or showpieces, we learn how varied our food can be and what can be done with it. Behind every recipe there are physical principles and chemical reactions, the confectionery combines creativity and science. During the training we also learn how to handle raw materials and ingredients responsibly. As in every craft, in the training as a confectioner you develop skills that you can use not only at work but also in everyday life. Passion became a profession!”

During her apprenticeship programme she took part to several competitions of confectioners. She admitted that it was extra and hard work to prepare for those. However, it was worth it, because in one competition (at the Fair “chocolART” in Tuebingen/DE) she reached the second place.

When asked what advice she would give to future confectioners, Julia answered: “Be ambitious and set yourself small, achievable goals that will help you move forward. Get to know other people from the same trade, exchange ideas and network. Also, try to make quality time out of your training by being enthusiastic about things and enjoying it (if it is the right profession for you). Try to broaden your horizons in training, for example by going abroad for a few weeks for practical experiences.”

Asked about what motives her, Julia said that she always set herself little goals. And there is already a new goal on the horizon. Right now she works in a bakery and confectionery. But she already registered for the Master school to get trained as Master confectioner. Her long term goal is to have her own café one day. In Germany the bakery and confectionery trades require master craftsmen. This means only master craftsmen are allowed to become self-employed after having passed the final examination.

Christina  Malagari – Agricultural scientist

Christina studied at university Agricultural Science and then she took a master’s degree of quality guarantee in company. Both related to the field of Innovative science applied to food and agriculture. After that, she decided to start a VET training, her aim was to access to a training ship in the dairy field. The VET program combined theoretical lessons (always aware of the European laws) with practice: laboratory sessions (controlled situations) and the creation of an own brand.

According to her experience, around the 90% of the students get hired by the end of the program.

As a woman, she never felt less than any of her mates, the group was balanced among men and women. However, she highlights that it is a harsh environment (animals, farms, cheese production, laboratory tests…). Nevertheless, she points out that women do all the work by her own.

The chance of taking these studies was such a great opportunity, moreover it is not that expensive (around 1.500 €) for two years of specialization and the students have the chance to get national certifications from the government.  Open Mellon, the VET center, is specialized on agricultural production at local and regional level (cheese, fruits, vegetables…). Additionally, they teach marketing strategies: promotion of the region and of the products.

The students have to explore what is being made in the region, choose in which company they want to do the traineeship, and have to combine this with practice in the laboratory, farms and production centers.

Once the VET center has approved the relation between the company and the student, there is no more guide, the student has to find his/her own way in the company. And has to be in different departments, and each time the student finishes a period in a department, the student receives a feedback. The main aim is to learn how to be a professional.

For Christina, after the university degree and the master, VET education was the best opportunity of specialization. She took advantage of this and she strongly recommends this path. Additionally, in her VET centre the focus was not only on learning about a job, but also on knowing how to promote the work, they learned marketing strategies, which is really important nowadays. In this regard she talks about the difference between the university world and VET. She thinks that there is an existing gap in the way of teaching and training and that, nowadays, companies are looking for applied knowledge. In her case, it was only by taking the VET studies that she could apply the scientific knowledge she learned at university.

She is currently working as an agricultural scientist in an agricultural company.

How did you find your way?

“After the degree and the master, I found this training in my region, dairy industry is really strong in this region. I found it an opportunity of specialization. It was my only chance”.

Regarding how women are seen in a ‘men’ world she says that, of course, there are prejudices about women who work with animals in farms and so on. However, she defends her position and how she enjoys working with animals. Women do work in harsh environments, however, it is not seen by society.

Little by little society is changing its mind, it is not about the industry, it is about how society sees some jobs. In this sense she has not felt any special courage as woman, she was already empowered, and she thinks that all women should feel empowered to do whatever they want to do.

 Vivi Kagkelari – Director at Vocational Training Centre GSEVEE

Vivi Kagkelari is the director of the Vocational Training Centre GSEVEE in the Thessaly branch. GSEVEE is a third level, cross-sectoral Confederation of Professional Craftsmen of Greece and is active in promoting and consolidating the professional, economical, cultural and broadly social, interests of small and medium entrepreneurs (SMEs)

She, as director, declares being really concern with the quality of the trainings they offer not only in the center but also in the company. For this reason, in relation with the cooperation of the center and the companies she states that her center has the total control by means of a standard questionnaire, and even, depending the course, there are more specific reports that describes the activities the trainees are developing.

In order to select the companies to work with them, she, firstly, searching for companies with the required profile, contacts with them about the facilities, the equipment, the content of the training and gives her ok. Then she establishes a group of specialized scientists-consultants who regularly visit the internship companies, monitor the progress of trainees through the use of specific questionnaires to both the trainees and the supervisor of the internship. These results are recorded in follow-up reports throughout the internship, at the entry, during the implementation and at the exit of the trainee from the internship.

She recognizes that there is a huge lack of companies in this region of Greece but she works hard to choose the best companies that can fit best for the internships of her Centre’s studies.

 Erica Germani (33) – Pastry Shop Chef 

The story of a former student born in 1987 who started her career with two ASL real work experiences at Bertolotti’s Pastry and Dolce Lodi pastry, which made her discover the cake design world.

In consequence of that, she joined the International University of Cast Alimenti school  in Brescia, where she was trained by important businessman as E. Massari (one of the most important pastry chef in Italy), Tonti (international maître chocolatier), Crosara D. (pastry chef specialized in royal icing), Mogni, Zoia…

When she finished her degree, she worked in different pastry shops to increase her skills, and finally, in 2015, she decided to open a pastry shop specialized in cake design which is called “Il Riccio Pasticcione”.

In these last years this pastry shop chef became very important for the school. Every year she spends time at school to train students in the cake design world.  Moreover, Erica hosts students in her pastry and one of them now works steadily there.

Glória Natália Araújo (25) – Baliff at the Valencia General Court 

Glória Natália Araújo, 25 years old, mother of a 3-month-old baby. She’s in love with life, she’s a dreamer. She works as a bailiff at the Valencia General Court. Glória has complet­ed the Professional Legal Services Techni­cian course.

After completing the course and the intern­ship held at the Arcos de Valdevez Judicial Court, Glória began her career at the Judicial Court of Guimarães, in January 2016, and then joined the Generic Jurisdiction Court of Valença, where she still works today.

A woman who fights for her dreams, whose motto is “Never give up, no matter how life pricks us down!”. She says that when she sets a goal, she doesn’t give up until she reaches it: first was the completion of her Legal Services Technician course and then being able to work in the area.

Versatile, brave, passionate, stubborn, true friend, determined and decisive, seeks to find the truth and the solution to the problem. In this case we can say it was a successful “goal”!

What is the most remarkable moment you had at EPRALIMA?

“Having passed EPRALIMA was undoubtedly the foundation and motivation necessary for my professional career. Three years market by a friendly atmosphere. As remarkable moments lived in EPRALIMA, I remember several: my internship —a unique experience, held in the Judicial Court of Arcos de Valdevez; the presentation of my PAP (Proof of Professional Aptitude) and the study visits made under my course”.


 Andréa Peixoto – Graphic Designer

Andréa Peixoto is a graphic designer that, with proven experience in the sector, is versatile and has a great ability to overcome. She works as a graphic designer in the Marketing Department of Sanitop and as a freelancer at Andréa Peixoto Designer.

She was a student in the professional course of 3D Digital Design Technician. After finishing the course, she completed a professional internship at Grupo Harena in Ponte de Lima. After this experience, she dedicated herself to build her portfolio as a freelancer at national and international level. She is currently part of the team of the Marketing Department of Sanitop company, based in Neiva – Viana do Castelo, and she continues to develop a portfolio as a freelancer.

Andréa has worked for companies such as Origin, USA; Oryx Insight, England; Jap Transport and RCL, from France; SUPER O + Económico, by Arcos de Valdevez; Gourmet Village, Ponte da Barca; Military Clan, USA; WeWork, USA; Jossil, from Ponte de Lima and many others.

She considers resilience to be her main feature, as she has always looked for work in her field of training, and despite encountering some difficulties along the way, she has never given up. Instead, she tried to find an “alternative” path and worked for a year as a locally and international freelancer. She is also a multipurpose woman who has work experiences in the most varied areas. Woman, persistent, friend and above all an excellent professional.

What is the most remarkable moment you had at EPRALIMA?

“EPRALIMA helped me to do something that, until that moment, had not been possible. It helped me to discover the profession I wanted to pursue in the future. This was a crucial moment for me, both in my student and professional life. From that moment I never let go my dream, I never gave up, regardless of the difficulties that the area entails”.

Elena A. (21) – IT technician, Chamber of Industry and Commerce of Zaragoza

I’m Elena A. a Young girl from a village in Aragón (Spain). I studied in the high school of my village and, when I finished the compulsory secondary education, the closest and easiest option I had was to study baccalaureate. At that time, I didn’t know what I really wanted to study, I was interested in many things, but by then none of them really caught my attention to study it and develop it in the future. During the first year of baccalaureate I realised that the subject that interested me the most was informatics, I had some previous knowledge because my brother was studying computer science, so I decided to go deeper into this subject and go further in my knowledge about computers. I couldn’t study that in the village so I decided to move to Zaragoza to study for an intermediate VET degree in microcomputer systems and networks. I was warned that it is usually a “men” degree, however this was not an inconvenience for me. I never thought that this would be a problem or that I would not be able to pass the tests in the same way that they do.

On the first day of school I was nervous because I didn’t know if I was the only girl in class or if there were more women interested in computer science and informatics.  Actually, in the course we started four girls, however two of them left the course, last year we were only two girls in a group of 30 people. All my classmates  told me that it was very rare to find girls who liked computers and informatics because even themselves thought this is a man’s world. Indeed, most of the teachers were men, however the teacher of one of the most complex subjects was a woman.  I had only some difficult moments in class, some practical sessions required some physical strength, I was not strong enough and my classmates could do it more easily than me, however Little by Little I managed to do the same work at the same speed. We always laugh together at this; it was not a problem at all. Personally, I never felt that me and the other girl were treated differently from our classmates, but it is true that the teachers and the school show interest in us continuing to study computers. They try to promote this type of VET degree among girls, in fact, we studied specifically the history of all the women who had helped years ago to make computers evolve. I had the impression that the teachers wanted to attract the attention of as many girls as possible to get them interested in computers, they aimed to balance the number of men and women in the classroom each year.

Last year I had the opportunity to do an internship in a company. At the VET center they recommend me to join the Chamber of Commerce of Zaragoza, they recommended this entity because they thought that I would feel comfortable and that it would help me to be less shy. My teachers weren’t wrong, since the very first moment I felt very supported, they trusted me to do the tasks and this possitive feedback encouraged me and made me want to continue in this man’s world. The first days I was nervous because I was afraid of not knowing how to do the tasks, however I was very lucky because the company tutors supported me a lot and left me asking all the doubts I had. They trust me and Little by Little I became more independent and I managed more tasks inside the company. One year later, I’m still working in the Chamber of Commerce of Zaragoza. I still have the same enthusiasm as the first day, additionally, I have continue with my studies and I’m studying a  higher degree of development of multiplatform applications in which it is noticeable that there are even less women enrolled, I am the only one girl in my class, however it is noticeable how the great majority of teachers are women.

When I compare the training methodologies used in high school and the VET school I see how different they are. The way in which we learned in the VET degree is way different, you are focused on those topics that really interest you and you are being prepared for your future job so you don’t feel that you are pushed to be there studying, you are there because you like what you are studying and you don’t mind to invest time in research about the topics. Still nowadays there are people who think that after the compulsory education it better to study a Baccalaureate and that VET courses worth less, in my opinion, and talking from my personal experience, I think that it is better to study and to be trained in something that really motivates you instead of feel frustrated studying a baccalaureate.

I really encourage girls to go for those studies they really like and enjoy without taking into account what type of training they are choosing (VET or baccalaureate) and if it is considered a man’s sector. I’m proud of my choices and they have brought me to start working even before finishing my studies.

Cristina Fernández – Former student of Mecatronics working at Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat

Cristina explains that she always wanted to study something related to mechanics. She had never been extremely worried about the fact that it is generally a “man world”.  Cristina has been the first woman to carry out a VET program in Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat, a railway company owned by the government of the region of Catalonia which operates several railway corridors and ski resorts in Catalonia (Spain).

Moreover, she has been one of the first women to carry out a traineeship program in this company. She defends equality between men and women in the company, so she encourages other girls to follow her path and hopes they have the support she has had.

What advantages do you think a VET program brings?

“I mainly see two advantages: the first one would be to apply class theory in the company. This way, small doubts and unclear concepts can be solved when we face the same problem in practice. And another would be to be able to get to know the sector in the work life. For example, in my case, I saw that I liked it much more than I thought I would and that helped me motivate when it came to study”.

What do you think you are bringing to the company?

“I think I bring good teamwork organization to the company since it was something we had in mind when we studied, for example, when we did projects”.

Read more (in Spanish) about Cristina’s carreer choice: https://www.alianzafpdual.es/casos-exito-Cristina-Fernandez

  Irene Vacas – Former student of Technical of commercial activities working in Aldi supermarkets

Irene Vacas had been working in the commerce sector since she was 16, by then she didn’t have any degree.

She saw a job offer in Aldi supermarkets, to apply she needed to be part of a dual training plan. She was interested in the offer and she started to study a module of Technician of commercial activities while she worked in Aldi. Three years later she is still working in the company. Her aim is to move to the training department to help future dual vocational training students.

What advantages do you think a VET program brings?

“The main advantage is that the student who has taken a VET program may have a more chances to find a job than a student who has taken a traditional vocational training course, since nowadays companies not only value an academic degree, but also the experience that the student may have”.

How did you find out about this training and why did you decide to start it?

“I found out about this Dual training through a job search website where Aldi was offering it. I applied, they contacted me, and in a meeting, they explained all the important aspects of this training. I had been working in the commercial sector since I was 16 years old without any qualifications, and thanks to my studies, nowadays I can say that I am a Technician of commercial activities”.

Read more (in Spanish) about Irene’s carreer choice:  https://www.alianzafpdual.es/casos-exito-irene-vacas

 Laura Aparicio Anglés (25) – Early Childhood teacher

I am Laura Aparicio, I am from Alcañiz (Teruel) and I am a teacher of Early Childhood Education with the Bilingual Speciality, by the University of Zaragoza. I am currently working in a rural school named “Cra del Mezquín”. Getting here has not been easy, I am going to explain what has helped me to get here and why I am proud of all the circumstances that have brought me here, because they have made me the person I am today.

After finishing high school, I had to choose what branch of baccalaureate I wanted to study. As I roughly knew that, in the future, I wanted to do something related to teaching, I decided to choose the humanities and social sciences baccalaureate. This specialty Will allow me to Access University. Once I successfully passed the two years of baccalaureate, I had to take the University Entrance Exam. After so much effort I didn’t manage to pass all the exams, so this meant I wasn’t going to be able to fulfil my dream of going to university and becoming a teacher.

So I had to stop, think of a plan B, take control of my life, think about what to do to achieve my goal: to be an early childhood education teacher. I had two options, either to lose another year of my life by re-studying all the university access exams or to choose VET. I chose a VET degree in childhood education, and I will never regret it.

Being honest, I have never felt like a failure. I chose VET as a springboard to achieve my final goal, which was to enter University, because the Spanish education system requires a university education title in order to access the job I wanted to achieve, however, additionally Vocational Education Training offered me much more. It was two years of training and constant learning.

From a professional point of view, during these two years I was able to broaden my curriculum and enjoy a traineeship period in a school in Zaragoza. This gave me a lot of work experience. It was an incredible experience. Both the internship and the final project were very important to obtain the required grade to finally enter university.

Once I finished the VET degree, to get more points to entering university, I decided to take an extra university access exam. It should be borne in mind that those who enter university after having studied a VET degree can obtain a maximum of 10 points and they are “competing” against those who enter university after taking the baccalaureate, who can obtain up to 14 points.  That is why I decided to take an extra exam, to increase my average mark for the VET degree, this extra effort made me achieve a very high mark that allowed me to access the University of Zaragoza, which required the highest access mark in Aragon.

VET education came into my professional career without planned it, however, it was a success. From my experience, I highly recommend this type of training, it has a perfect combination of theory and practice. Moreover, I see it not only as a totally valid educational option but also as a springboard option for those young people who want to access a university degree having some basic knowledge before starting the four university years, which is an advantage, this previous knowledge is something that those who start university after high school do not have.

I remember the words that my classroom tutor said to me when I finished my internship period at the school: “Laura, you are already a real teacher, you just need the diploma”. Those words made me understand that VET, at least in my case, has been the best way to prepare for university. Never before had I been so sure that my decision had been the right one.

I am currently working as a teacher at “Cra del Mezquín”, a rural school near Alcañiz, where I live, while I am studying for the 2022 Aragonese teaching exam, which will allow me to get a permanent job position in a state schools .

I see my story as a successful story, sometimes our path has some obstacles, but these are precisely opportunities to work harder on our future. At first, we see them as something negative, but in the end, everything happens for a reason and we have something awesome waiting for us, in my case it was VET education.

With perseverance, effort and discipline any goal can be achieved. My new goal? To pass the teaching exam next year!

“The world lies in the hands of those that have the courage to dream and who take the risk of living out their dreams – each according to his or her own talent.” ― Paulo Coelho

 Valide Karalar (39) – Yemeni Maker and Master Trainer

Valide Karalar worked in a shoe shop in Gaziantep for a while. She was successful in the Competence Institute, where she went to learn how to make the traditional shoes of the city and started as master trainer in the same institute.

She taught trainee women along with the master who taught her the profession, showing that women can be successful in this craft made by men. Valide Karalar stated that she had worked in many jobs such as childcare, dishwashing and cookery to contribute to the family budget, as she was the mother of three children, but at one point she realized that she wanted to get a job that she loved and was interested in. For this reason, she decided to learn how to make the yemeni, which are purely handmade shoes made of natural leather that have accessorized people’s feet for centuries in Gaziantep.

She explains: “First I started to work with a yemeni master, who taught me a little work. Then the Nurel-Enver Taner Gaziantep Competence Institute opened a manufacturing course I took, which comprised about 45 days of training”.

“I improved myself and started to work as a master trainer here. While going to the course my aim is to earn additional income by sewing yemeni in my spare time at home, but based on the fact that I love this job and have succeeded in training, now I give training to women like myself and I am very happy”.

Valide Karalar explained that yemeni manufacturing is usually done by men; nonetheless, she said that women are also very successful in this business as they learn more easily because their hands are more susceptible to sewing. After developing herself professionally, the masters that trained her wanted her to work at the same institute as a master trainer and she is currently training the women yemeni makers in Gaziantep.